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Fundamental Physical Constants


A number of physical constants are used throughout physics, as part of the equations used to calculate certain values. This listing is of the values for some of the more significant constants used, along with the variables used to represent them.

Fundamental Physical Constants

Speed of light c 2.99792458 x 108 m/s
Charge of electron e 1.602177 x 10-19 C
Gravitational constant G 6.67259 x 10-11 N m2/kg2
Planck's constant h 6.6260755 x 10-34 J s
Boltzmann's constant k 1.38066 x 10-23 J/K
Avogadro's number NA 6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol
Gas constant R 8.314510 J/mol K
Mass of electron me 9.10939 x 10-31 kg
Mass of neutron mn 1.67262 x 10-27 kg
Mass of proton mp 1.67492 x 10-27 kg
Permitivity of free space epsilon-naught 8.854 x 10-12 C2/N m2
k = 1/4 pi e0 8.987 x 109 N m2/C2
Permeability of free space mu-naught 4 pi x 10-7 Wb/A m

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